Clay model
The clay material has a wide range of sources, convenient and low-priced. After the “washing mud” process and the “smelting process, the texture is more delicate. Clay has a certain degree of adhesion and is extremely plastic. It can be modified repeatedly during the shaping process, and it is more convenient to repair. . It can also be reused. It is an ideal modeling material, but if the water in the clay loses too much, it will easily cause the clay model to shrink and crack or even break, which is not conducive to long-term storage. In addition, the effect is on the surface of the clay model. There are not many ways to deal with it. When making models with clay, it must be made with low sand content, and it must be processed repeatedly before use. It is convenient to use the mud and cooked. It is generally used as clay for sculpture and mold turning. [1]
Sludge model
Sludge is a man-made material. Very soft, soft and hard after solidification. Oil mud has strong plasticity, and its viscosity and toughness are stronger than yellow mud (clay model). It is easy to use during shaping, can be sculpted and trimmed at will during the shaping process, it is not easy to dry and crack after shaping and can be used repeatedly. Clay is relatively expensive and easy to carry. It is more suitable to make some small, special-shaped and more curved shapes. Generally, sludge is very convenient for modeling vehicles and ships. Therefore, it is a wise choice to choose brown sludge as the outermost layer of sludge. The main components of sludge material are 62% talc, 30% petrolatum, and 8% industrial wax.
Plaster model
Gypsum is economical in price, easy to use and process, and is used in ceramics, plastics, and model making. The gypsum has fine texture, easy to repair for surface decoration processing after molding, easy to long-term storage, suitable for making models of various requirements, and easy to display.
Plastic model
Plastic is a new material commonly used to make models. There are many types of plastics, and there are more than 50 main types. Thermoplastics are the most used for making models, mainly polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene, and ABS engineering plastics.
Materials, plexiglass sheets, foam plastic sheets, etc. Polyvinyl chloride has low heat resistance and can be molded by compression molding, blow molding, die casting and other molding methods. ABS engineering plastic has a low melting point. It can be easily softened by heating with electric ovens, electric stoves, etc., and can be hot pressed and connected to a variety of complex shapes. Plexiglass has the characteristics of good light suitability, light weight, high strength, bright color, convenient processing, etc., and it is easy to store after forming.
Wooden model
The wood we use is generally raw wood and man-made boards after secondary processing. Artificial boards often include plywood, particle board, blockboard, medium density fiberboard and so on. The model of furniture is usually made of wood.
Metal model
Steel materials are most used, such as various specifications of steel, pipes, plates, and sometimes a small amount of other metal materials such as aluminum alloys. The production of metal model materials mainly considers factors such as mechanical properties and cost. The mechanical properties are mainly considered in terms of the strength, elasticity, hardness, rigidity and impact resistance of metal materials. Metal model processing technology mainly includes cutting, welding, casting, forging, etc. Due to the limited processing conditions in the laboratory, there are fewer metal model process options.
Comprehensive model
The materials used for model making are sometimes not only one material, but also two or two types. The above materials are made through comprehensive processing, but still use one material as the main material, and the others are only partially used. The model made in this way has a better overall feeling and is convenient for later decoration processing. For example, a plaster carved telephone, the upper display window needs to use some transparent plexiglass, you can cut and paste some pictures on the reverse side, so as to achieve a realistic effect, and buttons, you can choose some plexiglass round rods, and then Keys of the same size and thickness are cut from the cross section, and the effect is very good. There are some other materials, such as FRP, foam and so on.