we have examinedthe nature of models and why they are such importantdesign and communication tools. We have also lookedat the various media from which models can currentlybe made and how these can be combined, whereappropriate, to provide different types of model. Clearly,models may be an integral part of a designer’s workingpractice – and yet they are so common in the exchangeand development of ideas that we rarely think to givethem a great deal of attention, and they are frequentlyused without question. Research into architecturalmodels is still a relatively nascent field of inquirybut with a burgeoning interest through publicationsand major exhibitions such as the The Architectural Model – Tool, Fetish, Small Utopia held at the DeutschesArchitekturmuseum, Frankfurt, 2012. Indeed, in theirintroduction to the accompanying catalogue, PeterCochola Schmal and Oliver Elser explain, ‘the reasonwhy models are so important to a museum is also thereason they have received so little scholarly attentionto date. They are viewed merely as stand-ins for thereal thing.’ Of course, we have learned throughout thecourse of this book so far that architectural models are somuch more than this, giving us windows to the creativeprocess and testaments to the unbuilt.
          At the start of this book, the point was illustrated that architectural historyand practice are paralleled by a history of models asdiverse in form and function as the buildings and ideasthey seek to represent. From highly abstract conceptualpieces to full-size prototypes enabling evaluation of theassemblage of innovative building components, therange of modelmaking opportunities available to thedesigner is both inspirational and occasionally daunting– particularly to those new to the discipline, or to thoselearning modelmaking techniques. With this in mind,the final section of this book will attempt to demonstrateand explain not just what a model is made from and itscorresponding purpose, i.e. the media and type of model,but when, how, why and by whom it is used withina design process. The reason for this is to deepen thereader’s understanding of models and their application.For those new to the discipline, architecture may presentmany scenarios where apparently different types of modelare used. However, ‘what might appear as chaotic or leastinfinitely varied situations can be seen to have muchstructure when described ecologically.’